Table sugar is a refined chemical, not a food. C12-H22-O11 to be exact.
Though chemically different, it is not unlike heroin or cocaine which are the super refined products of the poppy and coca bush.
Table sugar is the super refined product of sugarcane or beet beets.
By themselves, there is nothing wrong or dangerous about any of these plants.
The economics of refining sugar is compelling, especially when done at scale.
Sugar which is manufactured in vast quantities is cheap. As an ingredient it covers many sins and makes a lot of otherwise unpalatable, non-nutritious food taste appealing. It's a food manufacturers dream and in one form or another it's in everything.
Then along came high fructose corn syrup, an even more poisonous substance - and even cheaper.